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「Quenya」名詞、複數、以及冠詞

This is a quick course from the famous Quenya material stie Ardalambion adapted and translated by me.

本教程來源於 Quenya 知名站點 Ardalambion 的教程。

In most languages, Quenya being one of them, nouns can be inflected, that is, they appear in various forms to modify its meaning, or to make it fit into a specific grammatical context.

Quenya 和大多數語言一樣存在名詞變位的語法結構,即通過改變名詞的形式來附着修飾名詞的意蘊,或者來使之契合其在句子中的語法成分。

partitive plural 部分複數

Partitive plural is a grammatical number that is used to modify a noun which represents a part of some whole amount, as opposed to the comprehensive plural, used when the noun represents the total amount of something. In Quenya, partitive plural is formed by suffix -li, for example the plural form of Elda (Elf) is Eldali which may be interpreted as 'some elves but not all of them'.

與整體複數相對,部分複數是指表達作爲整體中的一部分的複數個事物。Quenya 中利用接尾 -li 來構成部分複數,譬如 Elda (精靈) 的複數形式就是 Eldali,表達了一羣精靈中的複數個。

comprehensive plural 整體複數

The rule for comprehensive plural depends on the ending of the noun. Nouns ending in any of the four vowels a, o, i, u or the group , form their plurals by appending suffix -r. For example the comprehensive plural of Elda is Eldar which means all elves.

整體複數的變化法則根據名詞的詞尾不同而變遷。一般而言,以 aoiu 以及元音組合 結尾的名詞,其整體複數(以下簡稱複數)由名詞直接附着接尾 -r 構成,例如 Elda 的複數即爲 Eldar,表示“所有的精靈”。

Single Comprehensive Plural Meaning
vala / valië valar / valier god / goddess
tië tier path
quendu / quendi quendur / quendir female / male elf

The regular inflection of nouns ending with ë is replace the ending with suffix -i. For example lambë (tongue) has its plural lambi, however, for nouns has form of *lë, to avoid the confusion with -li the partitive plural suffix, the plural is *ler, for example tyellë (grade) - tyeller and mallë (road) - maller.

而以 ë 結尾的名詞的變位規則是去 ë 然後加上接尾 -i。比方說:lambë (舌頭;語言) 的複數形式是 lambi。然而,爲了避免與部分複數接尾 -li 混淆,以 結尾的單詞遵循 -r 構成的原則。常見的有:tyellë (級別) - tyellermallë (道路) - maller

Nouns that end with consonant is inflected by adding the suffix -i directly. Note that there are only few nouns ending with a consonant.

以輔音字母結尾的名詞(相當罕見),則直接添加 -i 詞尾。

The refered site name Eldalambion means 'of tongue of the elves'.
本教程援引的網站 Eldalambion 的含義即“精靈之言語”。

Single Comprehensive Plural Meaning
lassë lassi leaf
elen eleni star
atan atani human
casar casari dwarf

the article 冠詞

Quenya does not have indefinite articles for 'a/an' in English, a singular word can be understood as with an indefinite article, hence heru is both 'lord' and 'a lord'. The definite article in Quenya is i, for example i eleni for ‘the stars’, i coimas for 'the lifebread'. Notice that some words that require article in English are counted as proper names in Quenya and take no article, for instance Anar caluva tielyanna is translated as ‘the Sun shall shine upon your path’.

Queny 不使用不定冠詞,因此單數形式的 heru 即表示“一個領主”。定冠詞的場合 Quenya 使用單一的 i 來表達,例如 i eleni 表示“那顆星”。諸如“太陽”、“月亮”這些名詞,在 Quenya 中也是專有名詞,因此也不需要定冠詞。譬如 Anar caluva tielyanna (願太陽照耀你的路途)

Quenya English
Anar the Sun
Isil the moon

Also notice that plural denoting an entire group of people normally takes no article. For example it is lambë Quendion instead of lambë i Quendion, for it signifies the language of all elves. (In contrast, language of some elves would be lambë i Quendlion.)

另外應當注意當描述民族、國家、團隊整體的時候,不應當使用定冠詞。當我們說“精靈的言語”是,正確的講法是:lambë Quendion 而不是 lambë i Quendion,因爲這裏的 Quendi 是一個關於種族的泛指。(進而,如果要表達部分精靈族人的語言,應當用部分複數名詞以及冠詞:lambë i Quendlion。)

vocabulary 本課詞彙

minë [n.] one 一個

ar [int.] and 和

lië [n.] people, sc. an entire ethnic group or race 人(民族)

vendë [n.] madien (in archaic Quenya wendë) 少女

rocco [n.] horse (specifically horse for riding, Letters: 382) 馬匹(騎乘用的馬)

aran [n.] king 國王

tári [n.] queen 王后、女王

nu [prop.] under 在……下面

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