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「Quenya」雙數和詞根變換

This is a quick course from the famous Quenya material stie Ardalambion adapted and translated by me.

本教程來源於 Quenya 知名站點 Ardalambion 的教程。

dual number 雙數

Like old English, Quenya possesses a dual form, refers to two things (sometimes also a couple of things). The dual is formed with one of the two endings: -u or -t. The difference between them is that: -u means natural pairs and -t for any two things. For example, the dual of (lip) is peu instead of pet. In LotR, the Two Trees of Valinor is refered to as Aldu. (dual of alda, which means tree) On the other hand aldat can refer to any two trees. Similarly ciryat means any two cirya (ship). Etymologically the suffix -t comes from the shorthand of atta (two), and hence ciryat can also be written like atta ciryar.

如同中古英語中常見的雙數格,Quenya 也具備這樣的語法來表達「一雙、一對」或者「一些」的含義。特別地,Quenya 的雙數由 -t-u 構成,兩者的主要區別在於 -u 表達自然意義上的一對、一雙,而 -t 則不具備這樣的意蘊,譬如上下脣 (嘴脣) 的雙數形式爲 peu,而 pet 則可能表示不同人的嘴脣了。在 Lord of the Rings 中 Valinor 的雙樹的名稱是 Aldu,這也是 alda (樹) 的雙數變位,注意這裏詞尾的元音縮合。當然,一般意義上的「一些樹」的表達方法則是 aldat。類似的還有 cirya (船) 的雙數 ciryat。實際上,詞綴 -t 是數詞 atta (二) 的縮寫,因此把 ciryat 寫成 atta ciryar 也是可以的。

In the later text of Quenya, the distinction between -u and -t is weaken, the choice is more of a taste (of the sound) than grammatical rule. Generally speaking, it is still preferred to use -t when there is definitely two things.

在近世的 Quenya 中,-t-u 的區別正變得逐漸模糊,兩者的辨析跟多知識在於讀音上的和諧。一般來說依然傾向於用 -t 來表達恰好是件的事物。

  1. With regard to the sounding, if the noun already contains t or d, the dual will adopt -u.
    若名詞本來就已經包含了 t 或者 d 的發音,一般來說雙數會選擇用 -u
  2. In the case when the noun ends with a consonant, since -t could not be added directly or otherwise it will result a final consonant cluster. -u is the obvious solution.
    當詞尾是輔音的時候,爲了避免以輔音組結尾,很自然會選用 -u 詞綴。
  3. If -t is to be used anyhow, a vowel would have to be inserted before the ending, but this is rather rarely seen.
    在 2. 的條件下,如果語法原因一定要使用 -t 形式的雙數,那麼會在兩個輔音之間插入一個元音字母。這種情況非常的罕見。

It occurred that for body parts or other more primitive concepts, -u is preferred as the pairs are so natural. For example, ranco (arm) - rancu (the arms of a person), hen (eye) - hendu (the pair of eyes of a person) notice that the comprehensive plural of hen, according to the Etymologies is hendi, so there is a stem variation, this can also be observed from the compound word hendumaica (sharp-eyed).

身體器官或者一些原始概念的雙數一般以 -u 結尾,比方說 ranco (手臂) 的雙數 rancu (雙臂),hen (眼睛) 的雙數 hendu (雙眼)。注意到,實際上 hen 的複數形式是 hendi,因此可見這個單詞的詞根發生了變形。從派生詞 hendumaica (見微知著的) 也可見一斑。

stem variation 詞根變形

In addition to the aforementioned hen to hend- change of stem, there are other stems that changes when a noun is inflected in Quenya.

如前所述的 hen 的詞根變位 hendi-,Quenya 當中存在一些在變位中需要注意的詞根變形。

  • shortened vowels in one syllable nouns, for example tál (foot) to tal-, talu (a pair of feet)
    單音節詞的元音一般是長音,其詞根則是短音,例如 tál (腳) 的詞根 tal-talu (雙足)。
  • to avoid impossible word endings, for example the base form of hen otherwise would be hend, but since consonant cluster is not allowed at the end of words, hence the final d is dropped.
    爲了避免不符合發音規則的詞尾,單數形式的名詞可能省略輔音,例如 hend- 的單數,由於無法以輔音組 nd 結尾,所以 d 在單數形式中被省略了,但在詞根中仍保留。
  • etymological reasons, a such example is talan (floor, derived from Primitive Elvish TALAM), its plural is talami instead of talani. The same for the example of filit (small bird, derived from PHILIK), the plural is filici. Also, it is for the fact that final k is not allowed that the singular ending becomes t.
    由於詞源的變異,例如 talan (地板;樓層) 來自於古精靈語 TALAM,因此他的複數形式是 talami 而不是 talani。同理,源自於古精靈語 PHILIK 的單詞 filit (小鳥) 的詞根是 filic- 注意其單數形式的詞尾 t 是由於 k 無法作爲詞尾,而其詞根的 ck 其實是同一個音。
  • shortened words will retain its full stem, for example meren is the short for merendë (festival; feast), hence the plural is merendi.
    縮略詞的詞根縮略,譬如 merenmerendë (節日、節慶) 的縮略詞,其複數形式依然是 merendi
  • contracted stems. sometimes a word is contracted when inflected, for example feren (beech tree) will be contract to ferni in plural. Such contraction often occurs in two-syllable words. Another word is laman (animal) and lamni, but in this case lamani is also acceptable.
    詞根縮合是指詞根省略某個元音,feren (櫸木) 的複數是 fernilaman (動物) 的複數是 lamni,不過一般來說 lamani 也是可以的。
  • in rare cases, the contracted stem is further changed, as the plural of seler (sister) will be contracted to selr- but lr is not a legitimate consonant cluster, hence it's further changed to sell-, and the plural is selli.
    在罕見的情況下,縮合的詞根會不符合發音規則,從而會需要進一步的變形,例子有 seler (姐妹) 的詞根,縮合後變成 selr- 但 Quenya 並不含有 lr 的輔音組,因此會變化成 sell-,複數形式就是 selli
  • stem ending with vowel o and ë can be a varying stem as the word is likely derived from Primitive Elvish. For instance rusco (fox) is said to have stem ruscu- hence the dual of rusco is ruscut, a couple of foxes. same for example lómë (night)has the stem lómi-, hence, the dual of lómë is expected to be lómit, as the word comes from Primitive Elvish DOMI.
    一類不規則的形式是以 oë 結尾的詞語,這些變位有時也能歸結到上古精靈語詞源。例如 rusco (狐狸) 的詞根是 ruscu,從而其雙數就是 ruscutlómë (夜晚) 的雙數是 lómit,這個詞源於古精靈語 DOMI

vocabulary 本課詞彙

nér (ner-) [n.] man (adult male of any sentient race Elvish, mortal or otherwise) 成年男性(無論種族)

nís (niss-) [n.] woman (similarly: adult female of any sentient race) 成年女性

sar (sard-) [n.] stone (a small stone not "stone" as a substance or material) 石塊

oron (oront-) [n.] mountain 山

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