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「Quenya」形容詞、系動詞和單複數一致

This is a quick course derived from the famous Quenya material stie Ardalambion adapted and translated by me.

本教程來源於 Quenya 知名站點 Ardalambion 的教程。

Adjectives, attributive and predicative 形容詞做定語和作表語

There are two usages of an adjective in most languages: attributive and predicative:

在絕大多數語言中,形容詞的用法有兩種:作爲定語或者作爲表語。

  • When used attributively, the adjective describes an attribute of the subject. The attributive adjective is a part of the subject, hence no verb is required.
    定語形容詞用於說明主詞的一種屬性,是整個主詞的一部分,因此使用的時候不需要任何動詞。
  • When used predicatively, the adjectives offers information about the subject, generally a copular verb is required to lead the predicative expression.
    表語形容詞用於描述主語的特徵,通常需要系動詞來構成系表結構

The adjectives in Quenya normally end in one of the two vowels: -a or , of which is less common and is typically presented in colours: ninquë (white), morë (black), carnë (red), varnë (brown), etc., When a adjective does not end with vowels, it ends with -in, which is an abbreviated form of -ina. e.g.: firin (dead); hwarin (bent, crooked); melin (dear, beloved), and latin (wide, open). It should be noticed that the -in adjectives seem to be the past participals of verbs that are used as adjectives.

在 Quenya 中,形容詞的詞尾有三種:-a,和 -in,其中最爲常見的是 -a,而 常見於表示顏色的詞語,諸如 ninquë (白),morë (黑),carnë (紅),varnë (棕) 等。-in-ina 的縮寫形式,多是動詞被動形態演變成的形容詞,例如firin (死的),hwarin (彎折的),melin (被鍾愛的) 和 latin (寬的;開闊的)。

Adjectives in -a are by far the most common. The final -a can appear by itself as in lára (flat) or be a part of a longer adjectival ending -wa, -n(d)a, -ima or -ya, e.g.: helwa (pale), harna (wounded), melda (beloved), melima (loveable, lovely), vanya (beautiful).

-a 結尾的形容詞最爲常見,而 -a 本身也可能是形容詞尾 -wa-n(d)a-ima-ya 的一部分,例如:helwa (蒼白的)、harna (受傷的)、melda (親愛的)、melima (可愛的)、vanya (美麗的)。

Attributive adjectives 定語性形容詞

In Quenya as in English, an adjective can be used attributively by directly combining the adjective with a noun, for instance: lintë yuldar (swift draughts), luini tellumar (blue vaults, blue domes), fána cirya (a white ship). Generally speaking, the attributive adjective goes before the noun, but there are cases, especially when using with a proper noun, the adjective can go after the noun: Alexanda alta (Alexander the Great).

正如同中文,定語性形容詞與名詞是連接在一起使用的,通常在名詞之前,例如:lintë yuldar (湍流)、luini tellumar (藍色的穹頂)、fána cirya (一支白船)。在用於某些特定稱爲時,也可以把形容詞後置,比如說 Alexanda alta (亞歷山大大帝)。

Predicative adjective 表語性形容詞

The Quenya copula ‘is’ has the form of , and the plural form ‘are’ has the form of nar, for example I parma ná carnë. (the book is red) or Ulundo ná úmëa. (The monster is evil.) I neri nar hallë. (The men are tall.) Early corpus show that in Quenya it is preferred that the copula goes at the end of the sentence, however as more corpus is published, this does not seem to be case. Still we have examples such as lá caritas… alasaila ná. (not to do it unwise is) in VT42:34.

Quenya 中的系動詞是 ,它的複數形式是 nar,例如:I parma ná carnë. (那書是紅色的。) or Ulundo ná úmëa. (那怪物是邪惡的。) I neri nar hallë. (那些人是高的。) 早期的文獻中,系動詞通常出現在句尾,而最近公開的文獻則顯示這只是一種個人的語言風格。不過托爾金的手筆中,依然常見諸如 lá caritas… alasaila ná. (爲之,不智也。) 的例子。

Another system of predicative requires no copula at all when the ‘linking’ verb is obvious: Ilu vanya. (the World is fair.) maller raicar. (roads are bent). A (ná) calima lá B. (A is brighter beyond-than B.)

當系表關係明顯的時候,也可以省略系動詞,例如:Ilu vanya. (世界多美麗。) maller raicar. (道路多崎嶇) A (ná) calima lá B. (甲至於乙更爲明亮。)

Adjectival agreement in number 形容詞的單複數一致性

As show above, Quenya adjectives must agree in number with the noun they describe. It is generally assumed, though, there are no special dual forms of adjectives, but only one plural (non-sigular) form.

如前面的例子,Quenya 要求形容詞的單複數與名詞一致,形容詞沒有雙數形式,也沒有部分複數形式,形容詞的複數形式僅僅是非單數形式。

Adjectives ending with -a form its non-sigular form by appending -i to it archaically, Quenya as spoken by the Noldor reduced the -ai to , so the ending -vë is a reduced form of -vai in archaic Quenya. However special cases are when the adjective ends with -ëa, such as laurëa (golden). In this case the first ë is transformed into i, so the plural of laurëa is laurië, as in the first line of Namárië: Ai! laurië lantar lassi súrinen… (Ah! Golden fall the leaves in the wind…) the adjective laurëa agrees the noun lassë in its plural form.

形容詞的複數,如同名詞一樣,以 -i 結束爲主,但 -ai 會被縮合成 ,因此 -vë 其實是縮合的 -vai,在上古 Quenya 中,-ai 的拼寫也是可以的。縮合的特殊情況是 -ëa 結尾的詞語,例如 laurëa (金色的),他的複數中,第一個 ë 會音變爲 i,因此複數形式爲laurië。Namárië 著名的開首句有云:Ai! laurië lantar lassi súrinen… (啊,金色的落葉飄蕩風中…)

Adjectives ending with , however simply takes the same plural form as the noun: by changing the ending to -i.

結尾的形容詞直接把結尾換成 i 即可,同名詞是一樣的。

Special notes on adjectives used as nouns: their plural / dual forms follow the rule of nouns instead of adjectives, hence when penya refers to the lacking one, its plural should be penyar (the lacking ones).

關於形容詞作名詞的特別註記:當形容詞作名詞時,他的複數和雙數變位應當遵循名詞的規律而非形容詞規律。例如: penya 指“缺席者”時,他的雙數形式是 penyar 而非 penyë。

Vocabulary 本課詞彙

hloníte [adj.] phonetic 音韻的
quanta [adj.] full 滿盈的
racina [adj.] stripped, deprived 被剝奪的
penya [adj.] lacking, inadequate 欠缺的;不適當的
atalantëa [adj.] ruinous, downfallen 傾覆的;傾塌的
neldë [num.] three 三
alta [adj.] great, big 巨大的;宏偉的
vanya [adj.] beautiful, fair 美好的
saila [adj.] wise 明智的
úmëa [adj.] evil 邪惡的

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